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Research Article

Adaptation to Different Human Populations by HIV-1 Revealed by Codon-Based Analyses

  • Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Simon D. W Frost,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Zehava Grossman,

    Affiliation: National HIV Reference Lab, Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Tel Hashomer, Israel

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  • Michael B Gravenor,

    Affiliation: School of Medicine, University of Swansea, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom

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  • Douglas D Richman,

    Affiliations: Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America, VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Andrew J. Leigh Brown mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: A.Leigh-Brown@ed.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Institute for Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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  • Published: June 23, 2006
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020062

About the Authors

Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Simon D. W Frost, Douglas D Richman
Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Zehava Grossman
National HIV Reference Lab, Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Tel Hashomer, Israel
Michael B Gravenor
School of Medicine, University of Swansea, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom
Douglas D Richman
VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California, United States of America
Andrew J. Leigh Brown
Institute for Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: A.Leigh-Brown@ed.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

SLKP, SDWF, DDR, and AJLB conceived and designed the experiments. SLKP, SDWF, and AJLB analyzed the data. ZG and MBG contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. SLKP, SDWF, ZG, and AJLB wrote the paper.