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Research Article

Differences in Reactivation of Tuberculosis Induced from Anti-TNF Treatments Are Based on Bioavailability in Granulomatous Tissue

  • Simeone Marino,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Dhruv Sud,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Hillarie Plessner,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Philana Ling Lin,

    Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • John Chan,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Microbiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • JoAnne L Flynn,

    Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Denise E Kirschner mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: kirschne@umich.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Published: October 19, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030194

About the Authors

Simeone Marino, Dhruv Sud, Denise E Kirschner
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Dhruv Sud
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Hillarie Plessner, JoAnne L Flynn
Department of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Philana Ling Lin
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
John Chan, Denise E Kirschner
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
John Chan
Department of Microbiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
John Chan
Department of Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: kirschne@umich.edu

Competing Interests

Our collaborator on this project, Joanne Flynn from the University of Pittsburgh, has received funding in the form of a Research Grant from Amgen, the company that makes Etanercept. Although this does not directly support the research in this manuscript, the Research Grant does fund studies on TNF and TB.

Author Contributions

SM, JLF, and DEK conceived and designed the experiments and wrote the paper. SM and PLL performed the experiments. SM, HP, PLL, JC, JLF, and DEK analyzed the data. SM, DS, HP, and PLL contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.