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Research Article

Natural Selection Fails to Optimize Mutation Rates for Long-Term Adaptation on Rugged Fitness Landscapes

  • Jeff Clune mail,

    jclune@msu.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Politecnica de València, València, Spain

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  • Dusan Misevic,

    Affiliation: Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

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  • Charles Ofria,

    Affiliation: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Richard E. Lenski,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Santiago F. Elena,

    Affiliations: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Politecnica de València, València, Spain, The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America

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  • Rafael Sanjuán

    Affiliations: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Politecnica de València, València, Spain, Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València, València, Spain

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  • Published: September 26, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000187

About the Authors

Jeff Clune, Charles Ofria
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
Jeff Clune, Santiago F. Elena, Rafael Sanjuán
Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Politecnica de València, València, Spain
Dusan Misevic
Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Richard E. Lenski
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
Santiago F. Elena
The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America
Rafael Sanjuán
Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València, València, Spain

Corresponding Author

Email: jclune@msu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JC REL SFE RS. Performed the experiments: JC DM. Analyzed the data: JC DM CO REL SFE RS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JC. Wrote the paper: JC RS. Initiated investigations into the subject: JC. Designed the initial experiments: JC SFE RS. Made necessary modifications to Avida: JC CO. Conducted the majority of the experiments: JC. Analyzed and interpreted the data: JC RS. Discussions to improve the experimental designs and interpretation of the results: JC DM CO REL SFE RS. Edited the manuscript: JC DM CO REL SFE RS. Designed the competition experiments: REL. Performed the competition experiments: DM. Prepared the graphics: DM. Conducted the mutation rate bias experiments: DM. Worked with JC on self-reflective mutation rates: DM.