About the Authors
- Jeff Clune, Charles Ofria
- Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
- Jeff Clune, Santiago F. Elena, Rafael Sanjuán
- Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad Politecnica de València, València, Spain
- Dusan Misevic
- Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
- Richard E. Lenski
- Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
- Santiago F. Elena
- The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America
- Rafael Sanjuán
- Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València, València, Spain
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Conceived and designed the experiments: JC REL SFE RS. Performed the experiments: JC DM. Analyzed the data: JC DM CO REL SFE RS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JC. Wrote the paper: JC RS. Initiated investigations into the subject: JC. Designed the initial experiments: JC SFE RS. Made necessary modifications to Avida: JC CO. Conducted the majority of the experiments: JC. Analyzed and interpreted the data: JC RS. Discussions to improve the experimental designs and interpretation of the results: JC DM CO REL SFE RS. Edited the manuscript: JC DM CO REL SFE RS. Designed the competition experiments: REL. Performed the competition experiments: DM. Prepared the graphics: DM. Conducted the mutation rate bias experiments: DM. Worked with JC on self-reflective mutation rates: DM.