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Research Article

Population Structure Induces a Symmetry Breaking Favoring the Emergence of Cooperation

  • Jorge M. Pacheco mail,

    pacheco@cii.fc.ul.pt,

    Affiliations: Departamento de Matemática da Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga, Portugal, ATP-group, CFTC, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Lisboa, Portugal, GADGET, Lisboa, Portugal

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  • Flávio L. Pinheiro,

    Affiliations: ATP-group, CFTC, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Lisboa, Portugal, GADGET, Lisboa, Portugal

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  • Francisco C. Santos

    Affiliations: MLG and IRIDIA, Computer and Decision Engineering Department, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, CENTRIA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, Caparica, Portugal, GADGET, Lisboa, Portugal

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  • Published: December 11, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000596

About the Authors

Jorge M. Pacheco
Departamento de Matemática da Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga, Portugal
Jorge M. Pacheco, Flávio L. Pinheiro
ATP-group, CFTC, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Lisboa, Portugal
Francisco C. Santos
MLG and IRIDIA, Computer and Decision Engineering Department, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Francisco C. Santos
CENTRIA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, Caparica, Portugal
Jorge M. Pacheco, Flávio L. Pinheiro, Francisco C. Santos
GADGET, Lisboa, Portugal

Corresponding Author

Email: pacheco@cii.fc.ul.pt

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JMP FCS. Performed the experiments: JMP FLP FCS. Analyzed the data: JMP FLP FCS. Wrote the paper: JMP FCS.