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Research Article

Informing Optimal Environmental Influenza Interventions: How the Host, Agent, and Environment Alter Dominant Routes of Transmission

  • Ian H. Spicknall,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • James S. Koopman,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Mark Nicas,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America

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  • Josep M. Pujol,

    Affiliation: Telefonica, Catalonia, Spain

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  • Sheng Li,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Joseph N. S. Eisenberg mail

    jnse@umich.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Published: October 28, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000969

About the Authors

Ian H. Spicknall, James S. Koopman, Sheng Li, Joseph N. S. Eisenberg
Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Mark Nicas
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Josep M. Pujol
Telefonica, Catalonia, Spain

Corresponding Author

Email: jnse@umich.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: IHS JSK MN JMP SL JNSE. Performed the experiments: IHS JMP JNSE. Analyzed the data: IHS JSK JNSE. Wrote the paper: IHS JSK JMP SL JNSE.