Advertisement
Research Article

Persisting Viral Sequences Shape Microbial CRISPR-based Immunity

  • Ariel D. Weinberger mail,

    ariel_weinberger@meei.harvard.edu (ADW); jbanfield@berkeley.edu (JFB)

    Affiliations: Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America, Departments of Ophthalmology and Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    These authors made major contributions to the paper, the first in developing the theory, modeling the data, and writing the paper; the second in assembling and analyzing metagenomic data.

    X
  • Christine L. Sun ,

    Affiliation: Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    These authors made major contributions to the paper, the first in developing the theory, modeling the data, and writing the paper; the second in assembling and analyzing metagenomic data.

    X
  • Mateusz M. Pluciński,

    Affiliations: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Vincent J. Denef,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Brian C. Thomas,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Philippe Horvath,

    Affiliation: DuPont Nutrition and Health, Dange-Saint-Romain, France

    X
  • Rodolphe Barrangou,

    Affiliation: DuPont Nutrition and Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

    X
  • Michael S. Gilmore,

    Affiliations: Departments of Ophthalmology and Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Microbial Sciences Initiative, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Wayne M. Getz,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Jillian F. Banfield mail

    ariel_weinberger@meei.harvard.edu (ADW); jbanfield@berkeley.edu (JFB)

    Affiliations: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Published: April 19, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002475

About the Authors

Ariel D. Weinberger
Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Ariel D. Weinberger, Michael S. Gilmore
Departments of Ophthalmology and Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Christine L. Sun
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Mateusz M. Pluciński, Vincent J. Denef, Brian C. Thomas, Wayne M. Getz, Jillian F. Banfield
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Mateusz M. Pluciński
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America
Philippe Horvath
DuPont Nutrition and Health, Dange-Saint-Romain, France
Rodolphe Barrangou
DuPont Nutrition and Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
Michael S. Gilmore
Microbial Sciences Initiative, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Jillian F. Banfield
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ADW WMG JFB. Performed the experiments: ADW CLS MMP. Analyzed the data: ADW CLS MMP VJD BCT JFB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ADW PH RB MSG JFB. Wrote the paper: ADW MSG. Contributed to writing the manuscript: CLS MMP VJD BCT PH RB WMG JFB.