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Research Article

Protein Scaffolds Can Enhance the Bistability of Multisite Phosphorylation Systems

  • Carlo Chan,

    Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Center for Mathematical and Complex Biological Systems, Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America

    X
  • Xinfeng Liu,

    Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Liming Wang,

    Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, California State University, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

    X
  • Lee Bardwell,

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America

    X
  • Qing Nie equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Qing Nie, Germán Enciso

    Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Center for Mathematical and Complex Biological Systems, Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America

    X
  • Germán Enciso equal contributor mail

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Qing Nie, Germán Enciso

    enciso@uci.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, Center for Mathematical and Complex Biological Systems, Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America

    X
  • Published: June 21, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002551

About the Authors

Carlo Chan, Qing Nie, Germán Enciso
Department of Mathematics, Center for Mathematical and Complex Biological Systems, Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America
Xinfeng Liu
Department of Mathematics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America
Liming Wang
Department of Mathematics, California State University, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Lee Bardwell
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: enciso@uci.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: XL LB QN GE. Analyzed the data: CC LW LB QN GE. Wrote the paper: LB GE. Performed all simulations: CC. Performed the mathematical proofs: CC LW GE. Wrote the supplementary material: CC GE.