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Electric Imaging through Evolution, a Modeling Study of Commonalities and Differences.

Electric images modeled on wave-type and pulse-type electric fishes, with electric organs of different complexity. Source distributions are calculated from experimental measurements; determined how the electric organ complexity shapes the electric field and consequently, electric images. Hypothesis are generalized that fishes explore objects using the perioral "fovea", while surrounding regions are suitable for detecting the presence and movement of surrounding objects. Due to the complexity of distributed electric organs American fishes show weaker fields than Africans. However, this endows American fishes to emit site-specific signals to be detected by conspecifics while developing encryption strategies to avoid predators. See Pedraja et al.

Image Credit: Federico Pedraja