Table of Contents: October 2010


Endurance runners must race long distances without 'hitting the wall,' exhausting the carbohydrate reservoirs that fuel their working muscles.

Image Credit: Benjamin I. Rapoport; segment of glycogen molecule from image by Mikael Häggström via Wikimedia Commons, brick wall courtesy of Charles S. Bond.
Issue Image

Small carbohydrate reserves can catastrophically limit human performance in endurance running: Runners risk "hitting the wall" if they exhaust their leg muscle glycogen before finishing a race. Using a mathematical model of carbohydrate metabolism during endurance running, Benjamin Rapoport (10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000960) demonstrates a method of computing personalized estimates of distances at which runners exhaust their carbohydrate stores while racing at various intensities, providing a quantitative basis for safe pacing strategies, optimal midrace fueling plans, and estimations of performance limits in human endurance running. This artistic rendering shows a runner at different distances and stages of glycogen depletion, superimposed on a glycogen molecule.


In Memoriam: Rolf Kötter (1961–2010)

Klaas Enno Stephan, Anthony Randal McIntosh, Claus C. Hilgetag

Research Articles

Role of Lipids in Spheroidal High Density Lipoproteins

Timo Vuorela, Andrea Catte, Perttu S. Niemelä, Anette Hall, Marja T. Hyvönen, Siewert-Jan Marrink, Mikko Karttunen, Ilpo Vattulainen

Informing Optimal Environmental Influenza Interventions: How the Host, Agent, and Environment Alter Dominant Routes of Transmission

Ian H. Spicknall, James S. Koopman, Mark Nicas, Josep M. Pujol, Sheng Li, Joseph N. S. Eisenberg

Endothelial Cell Capture of Heparin-Binding Growth Factors under Flow

Bing Zhao, Changjiang Zhang, Kimberly Forsten-Williams, Jun Zhang, Michael Fannon

Numerical Analysis of Ca2+ Signaling in Rat Ventricular Myocytes with Realistic Transverse-Axial Tubular Geometry and Inhibited Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

Yuhui Cheng, Zeyun Yu, Masahiko Hoshijima, Michael J. Holst, Andrew D. McCulloch, J. Andrew McCammon, Anushka P. Michailova

Non-Bulk-Like Solvent Behavior in the Ribosome Exit Tunnel

Del Lucent, Christopher D. Snow, Colin Echeverría Aitken, Vijay S. Pande

Biosensor Approach to Psychopathology Classification

Misha Koshelev, Terry Lohrenz, Marina Vannucci, P. Read Montague

A Covering Method for Detecting Genetic Associations between Rare Variants and Common Phenotypes

Gaurav Bhatia, Vikas Bansal, Olivier Harismendy, Nicholas J. Schork, Eric J. Topol, Kelly Frazer, Vineet Bafna

Bistability in Apoptosis by Receptor Clustering

Kenneth L. Ho, Heather A. Harrington

Library of Disordered Patterns in 3D Protein Structures

Michail Yu. Lobanov, Eugeniya I. Furletova, Natalya S. Bogatyreva, Michail A. Roytberg, Oxana V. Galzitskaya

Selection upon Genome Architecture: Conservation of Functional Neighborhoods with Changing Genes

Fátima Al-Shahrour, Pablo Minguez, Tomás Marqués-Bonet, Elodie Gazave, Arcadi Navarro, Joaquín Dopazo

Genetic Signatures in the Envelope Glycoproteins of HIV-1 that Associate with Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

S. Gnanakaran, Marcus G. Daniels, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Alan S. Lapedes, Anurag Sethi, Ming Li, Haili Tang, Kelli Greene, Hongmei Gao, Barton F. Haynes, Myron S. Cohen, George M. Shaw, Michael S. Seaman, Amit Kumar, Feng Gao, David C. Montefiori, Bette Korber