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Research Article

Persisting Viral Sequences Shape Microbial CRISPR-based Immunity

  • Ariel D. Weinberger mail,

    ariel_weinberger@meei.harvard.edu (ADW); jbanfield@berkeley.edu (JFB)

    Affiliations: Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America, Departments of Ophthalmology and Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    These authors made major contributions to the paper, the first in developing the theory, modeling the data, and writing the paper; the second in assembling and analyzing metagenomic data.

    X
  • Christine L. Sun ,

    Affiliation: Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    These authors made major contributions to the paper, the first in developing the theory, modeling the data, and writing the paper; the second in assembling and analyzing metagenomic data.

    X
  • Mateusz M. Pluciński,

    Affiliations: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Vincent J. Denef,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Brian C. Thomas,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Philippe Horvath,

    Affiliation: DuPont Nutrition and Health, Dange-Saint-Romain, France

    X
  • Rodolphe Barrangou,

    Affiliation: DuPont Nutrition and Health, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

    X
  • Michael S. Gilmore,

    Affiliations: Departments of Ophthalmology and Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Microbial Sciences Initiative, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Wayne M. Getz,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Jillian F. Banfield mail

    ariel_weinberger@meei.harvard.edu (ADW); jbanfield@berkeley.edu (JFB)

    Affiliations: Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

    X
  • Published: April 19, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002475

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